Links and References


1. Conventional Signs and Abbreviations Used on USSR Military and Geodesy and Cartography Committee Maps, Series GSGS 5861 (Military Survey [UK], 1992).

2. “Copying Maps Costs AA £20m,” Guardian, March 6, 2001.

3. Foreign Maps, US Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 5- 248 (1963). Includes a useful summary of USSR mapping activities, authorities, and map characteristics at that time.

4. Glossary of Soviet Military and Related Abbreviations, US Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 30- 546 (1957).

5. Red Army Maps of UK and Other Countries (catalog) (Kerry, Wales: David Archer Maps, 1996).

6. “Russia Jails ‘Spy’ for Handing Maps to US Intelligence,” BBC News, May 31, 2012.

7. Russian Military Mapping: A Guide to Using the Most Comprehensive Source of Global Geospatial Intelligence (Minneapolis: East View Press, 2005). This is a translation of the 2003 edition of the manual used by the Russian armed forces.

8. “Russian Spy Jailed for Sending Secret Army Maps to US,” BBC News, May 13, 2010.

9. Soviet Topographic Map Symbols, US Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 30- 548 (1958).

10. Specifications for Topographic Map in Scale 1:50 000, 2nd ed. (Riga: State Land Service of the Republic of Latvia Cartography Board, 2000).

11. Symbols on Land Maps, Aeronautical and Special Naval Charts, Standardization Agreement (STANAG) (Military Agency for Standardization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO], 2000). Unclassified.

12. Terrain Analysis of Afghanistan (Minneapolis: East View Press, 2003). Translations
of the topographic descriptions on the Soviet 1:200,000 sheets.

13. Terrain Analysis of Syria and Lebanon (Minneapolis: East View Press, 2015).

14. Terrain Analysis of Ukraine (Minneapolis: East View Press, 2014).

15. “UK Government’s Secret List of ‘Probable Nuclear Targets’ in 1970s Released,” Guardian, June 5, 2014.

16. “USSR Planned to Invade Sweden,” Pravda Online, February 21, 2003,

17. “Where to Purchase Soviet Military Mapping,” Information Sheet 1C, Cambridge University Library Map Department (UK), first issued September 7, 2001, and updated regularly; latest version dated December 8, 2015

18. P. Collier, D. Fontana, A. Pearson, and A. Ryder, “The State of Mapping in the Former Satellite Countries of Eastern Europe,” Cartographic Journal 33, no. 2 (1996): 131– 39.

19. John L. Cruickshank, “Mapping for a Multi- Lingual Military Alliance: The Case of East Germany,” The Ranger [journal of the Defence Surveyors’ Association, UK] (Winter 2009): 33– 36.

20. John L. Cruickshank, “Military Mapping by Russia and the Soviet Union,” in The History of Cartography, Vol. 6: Cartography in the Twentieth Century, ed. Mark Monmonier (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 932– 42.

--. Martin Davis and A.J. Kent 'Improving User Access to Soviet Military Mapping: Current Issues in Libraries and Collections around the Globe', Journal of Map & Geography Libraries, Vol 13, 2017, Issue 2

--. Martin Davis and A.J. Kent 'Identifying Metadata on Soviet Military Maps: An Illustrated Guide'

21. A. J. Kent and P. Vujakovic, “Stylistic Diversity in European State 1:50,000 Topographic Maps,” Cartographic Journal 46, no. 3 (2000): 179– 213.

22. Nikolay N. Komedchikov [Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow], “Copyright on Cartographic Works in the Russian Federation,’ ACTA Scientiarum Polonorum, Geodesia et Descriptio Terrarum 6, no. 3 (2007): 15–18.

23. Nikolay N. Komedchikov, “The General Theory of Cartography Under the Aspect of Semiotics,” Trans Internet Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften
[Trans Internet journal for cultural studies], no. 16 (2005),

24. Greg Miller, Inside the Secret World of Russia’s Cold War Map Makers,, 2015

25. Clifford J. Mugnier, “Grids & Datums: Republic of Estonia,” Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing (August 2007): 869– 70. Describes the 1963 Projection of Soviet maps for civil use.

26. Béla Pokoly, ed., Cartography in Hungary 2003– 2007 (Moscow: Proceedings of 14th General Assembly, August 4– 9, 2007).
See also:

27. Alexey V. Postnikov, “Maps for Ordinary Consumers versus Maps for the Military: Double Standards of Map Accuracy in Soviet Cartography, 1917– 1991,” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 29, no. 3 (2002): 243– 60.

28. Alexey V. Postnikov, Russia in Maps: A History of the Geographical Study and Cartography of the Country (Moscow: Nash Dom– L’Age D’Homme, 1996). Part of the Russia’s Cultural Heritage series from the Russian State Library Collection.

29. Roskartografia (Russian State Mapping Service), Toponymic Data Files: Automated Data Processing Systems: Development of Russia’s National Catalogue of Geographic Names (New York: United Nations Economic and Social Council, Seventh United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, 1998).

30. Michael Stankiewicz et al., The Evolution of Mathematical Bases of Polish Topographic Maps During the Recent 80 Years (Moscow: Proceedings of 23rd International Cartographic Conference, August 4–10, 2007).

31. Desmond Travers, Soviet Military Mapping of Ireland During the Cold War
(Zurich: Parallel History Project on Co-operative Security [PHP], [n.d.]),

32. Dagmar Unverhau, ed., State Security and Mapping in the German Democratic Republic: Map Falsification as a Consequence of Excessive Secrecy? (Berlin: Lit Verlag, 2006).

33. Erkki-Sakari Harju, Suomen sotilaskartoitus, 400 vuotta [Finnish military mapping, 400 years] (Helsinki: AtlasArt Oy, 2016).

34. Militärtopographie Lehrbuch für Offiziere [Military topography textbook for officers] (Berlin: Verlag Des Ministeriums Für Nationale Verteidigung, 1960). Includes examples and symbology of DDR maps and those of West Germany, NATO, France, Britain, and the United States.

35. Gerhard L. Fasching, ed., Militärisches Geowesen der DDR von den Anfängen bis zur Wiedervereinigung [East German military- topographic service from inception to unification] (Wien: Bundesministerium für Landesverteidigung, 2006).
A history of the service with illustrations and map extracts.
English translation by John L Cruickshank of list of contents, list of diagrams and maps, appendices

36. Wokowach Radzieckiej Doktryny Politycznej [In the shackles of Soviet political doctrine] (Warsaw: Wydawca Geodeta, 2010). The history of the Polish Military- Topographic Service, 1945– 90.

37. Fundamental Regulations for the Making of Topographic Maps at the Scales of 1:10,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 (Moscow: Head of the Military Topographic Directorate of the General Staff and the Head of the Main Administration for Geodesy and Cartography of the Ministry of Internal Affairs [MVD] of the USSR, Editorial- Publishing Department of the Military Topographic Service Moscow, 1956). There is also a 1984 edition.
English translation of 1956 edition by John L Cruickshank

38. Handbook on Cartographic and Map-Issuing Works; Part 4: Compilation and Preparation for Printing of Plans of Towns (Moscow: Chief of the Military-Topographic Directorate of the General Staff and by the Chief of the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, 1978).
English translation by John L Cruickshank

39. Карта Офицера [Map officer] (Moscow: General Directorate of Combat Training of the Ground Forces, 1985).

40. Symbols on Topographic Maps 1:10,000 Scale (Moscow: Head of Geodesy and Cartography under the Council of Ministers and the Head of the Military Topographic Directorate of the General Staff).
1977 edition
1954 edition

41. T. V. Vereshchaka, Топографические Карты, Научные Основы Содержания [Topographic maps: the scientific foundations of their content] (Moscow: MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodika,” 2002).
English translation

42. Walther Blaadh (pseud.), Sovjetisk Invasion av Sverige: Hur planerade Sovjet att invadera Sverige? Vad visste de? Hemliga kartor, planer och förband [Soviet invasion of Sweden: How the Soviet Union planned to invade Sweden? What did they know? Secret maps, plans and formations], ed. Simon Olsson (Stockholm: Swedish Association for Military History, 2015).

43. Joakim von Braun and Lars Gyllenhall, Ryska elitförband [Russian elite forces] (Stockholm: Förlag Fischer, 2013). Includes Soviet military mapping of Sweden.

The following articles have appeared in Sheetlines, the journal of the Charles Close Society for the Study of Ordnance Survey maps, :

44. John Cruickshank, “German-Soviet Friendship and the Warsaw Pact Mapping of Britain and Western Europe,” Sheetlines 79 (August 2007): 23– 43.

45. John Cruickshank, “Виды из Москвы—Views from Moscow,” Sheetlines 82 (August 2008): 37– 49.

46. John Cruickshank, “Khrushchev Preferred Bartholomew’s Maps,” Sheetlines 87 (April 2010): 31– 34.

47. John Cruickshank, “How Big a Map Does It Take to Build Socialism?” Sheetlines 89 (December 2010): 5–12.

48. John Davies, “Uncle Joe Knew Where You Lived: Soviet Mapping of Britain,” Sheetlines 72 (April 2005): 26–38; and Sheetlines 73 (August 2005): 6–20.
part 1:
part 2:

49. John Davies, “Comrade Baranow, the Bouncing Czech, Penkilan Head and the World Map,” Sheetlines 78 (April 2007): 32–33.

50. David Watt, “Soviet Military Mapping,” Sheetlines 74 (December 2005): 9– 12.

51. Ordnance Survey statement of September 1997

52. The following libraries have collections of Soviet maps for inspection on site:
Bodleian Library, Oxford, UK

British Library, London, UK

Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, UK

Library of Congress, Washington, DC

Library of Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

National Library of Latvia

53. The following libraries have collections of Soviet maps viewable online:

ICGC Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya:
National Library of Australia:

Stanford University:

54. Original paper copies of Soviet maps are on sale at Jana Seta map shop in Riga, Latvia:

55. Digital images of Soviet maps are available as free download or for purchase from the following: (contact Geoffrey Forbes

Soviet maps of Belgium and Netherlands at:
Polish military maps from 1919-1939 at:
Military and other historic maps, primarily of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia at:
German, Russian and other mapping of World War 2 era and much else at:
Translation of 'spravka' for San Diego in at:
Free online world maps including Soviet military topos